The inhabitants of Antananarivo, in Madagascar, are currently struggling with diverse water-related issues, like pluvial floods and water pollution, which are particularly damaging for vulnerable communities within the city.

The process

The study was organized into four tasks - inception, diagnostic, scenario building and synergies and prefeasibility - which resulted in a city strategy, plans for three pilot sites and recommendations for the implementation and upscaling of those pilots.

Evacuation and refuge strategy

Based on the findings from previous phases of this study, we developed a comprehensive and integrated evacuation and refuge strategy, which served as the framework for the pilot plans.

Pilot sites

Following the design of the evacuation and refuge plan, we focused on three pilot sites. These are sites 1, 3 and 9, which we consider are representative of a larger situation.


Recommendations list resulting from this study.

How to select NbS and complementary measures

We followed an approach that focused on sites that are representative, upscalable, and multipurpose.